Seaweed Oligo/Polysaccharide

Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Brown Seaweeds (Fucoidan)
Diabetic Glucose Control & Immune Regulationseaweeds-1

Fucoidan are a group of mucopolysaccharides isolated from the outer-surface of brown seaweeds. These fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs, also call Fucoidan) found mainly in brown seaweeds such as Mozuku, Kombu,Limu moui, Bladderwrack, Wakame, and Hijiki. These polysaccharides may also compose of galactose, mannose or xylose containing sulfate ester bond. Many researchers already revealed that fucoidan exhibited immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-diabetes activities.

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Uique enzymatic hydrolysis technique gives wider & balanced molecular wt. distribution with better bioactivities
The bioactivities FCSP may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology (Tutor Ale et.al., 2011). FCSP are vulnerable to traditional chemical harsh extraction, therefore gentler enzymatic hydrolysis extraction techniques which used shorter extraction times, lower temperatures, and acid levels will ensure extraction of distinct structures for those FCSP. Most commercial Fucoidan products (Fig. 1) contains only large molecular (100~2000 kDa) while Simpson Biotech’s Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Brown Seaweeds (EHBS) has not only the large molecular but also the mid-size (10~100 kDa, same dose, better performance) and small (~500Da, easy-absorbed) polysaccharides for all kind of bioactivities.

Blood glucose control -slowdown starch digestion
In 2012, about 9.3% in the United States have diabetes; most of them are Type 2. Type 2 diabetes is caused by an imbalance between blood sugar absorption and insulin secretion. To control Type 2 diabetes, it is possible to reduce the glucose release from the starches digestion processes by inhibiting the activities of the two major digesting enzymes called α-amylase and α-glucosidase. α-amylase randomly cleaves the starches into oligosaccharides call dextrin or maltose(disaccharides) while α-glucosidase breaks down disaccharides to glucose. The IC50 for α-amylase of EHBS is 6.36 μg/ml which is 8-times and 21-times better than Cebolixs®/Insea2 (a commercial brown seaweed product using Insea2 (polyphenol-rich) as the active ingredient) and Acarbose (an anti-diabetes drug) as showed in Table 1. The blood glucose control ability in 30-kg pigs with starch-based meal which take 150 mg/meal EHBS is even better than that of 500 mg/meal of Cebolixs® and 50mg/meal Acarbose (Figure 2.) 

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Immune regulatory activities
The dried powder of enzymatic hydrolyzed brown seaweed (EHBS) and its polysaccharide fraction (PS-EHBS) activated the innate immune response. Both EHBS and PS-EHBS activated the cytolysis activity of natural killer cell (Figure 3A) and the phagocytosis activity of macrophage (Figure 3B) so that enhanced the resistance of virus or bacterial infection.

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Anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of bacteria induce the oxidation reaction resulted in the production of superoxide in cell during infection. A series of chain reaction induced by superoxide oxidation caused cell damage and accelerated aging. The PS-EHBS reduces the superoxide concentration induced by LPS in mouse macrophage (Figure 4A). PS-EHBS treatment reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 content during LPS induced inflammation in macrophage(Figure 4B, C)

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